Sola Gratia

A central cry of the Reformation was salvation by grace. Though the Roman Catholic Church taught that Mass is a “sacrifice [which] is truly propitiatory” and that by the Mass “God . . . grant[s] us grace and the gift of penitence, remits our faults and even our enormous sins,”...

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Sola Fide

The “material principle” of the Reformation was justification by faith alone. As the Westminster Confession of Faith says, “Faith, thus receiving and resting on Christ and his righteousness, is the alone instrument of justification: yet is it not alone in the person justified, but is ever accompanied with all other...

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Solus Christus

The Reformation called the church back to faith in Christ as the sole mediator between God and man. While the Roman Catholic Church held that “there is a purgatory and that the souls there detained are helped by the intercessions of the faithful,” and that “saints are to be venerated...

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Sola Scriptura

The doctrine that the Bible alone is the ultimate authority was the “formal principle” of the Reformation. In 1521 at the historic interrogation at the Diet of Worms, Luther declared his conscience to be captive to the Word of God saying, “Unless I am overcome with testimonies from Scripture or...

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Soli Deo Gloria

The Reformation reclaimed the Scriptural teaching of the sovereignty of God over every aspect of the believer’s life. All of life is to be lived to the glory of God. The Westminster Shorter Catechism asks, “What is the chief end of man?” and answers, “Man’s chief end is to glorify...

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